This topic provides basic information about the main types of infectious or contagious diseases. It includes details of how they are spread and methods of prevention and control.

The spread of infections in hospitals, care homes and other healthcare-related environments has long been a problem with which public health experts and health and social care managers have had to grapple. In such environments infections that can be acquired while receiving care are often referred to as healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs).

The most encountered HCAIs are outlined and the transmission, symptoms treatment and control methods of these.

Specific details are provided on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Based on the level of spread of this virus, the World Health Organization (WH0) characterised the COVID-19 situation as a pandemic in March 2020. This has been named as: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease caused as a result of infection is named - coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

This topic should be read in conjunction with related topics on Infection Control Management and Infection Prevention and Control Procedures.

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