This toolkit provides a step-by-step guide for managing the coronavirus in schools. It provides links to key information and template policies on Croner-i. This information is being continually checked and updated.
Covid-19 — coronavirus
The World Health Organization (WHO) describes coronaviruses (CoV) as a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). This particular episode, which first appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has been named “Covid–19” and labelled a pandemic.
According to the NHS, the most common symptoms are high temperature (fever), a new and continuous dry cough, and/or loss or change to the sense of smell or taste. Most people will only suffer mild symptoms. However, others will be very ill and recovery can be slow and difficult. Mortality is high, particularly in those most at risk such as the elderly, those with weakened immune systems, and those with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, cancer, kidney and lung disease. Symptoms can appear in as few as two days after infection or as long as 14 days. Some people infected with Covid-19 can be “asymptomatic” but still spread the virus.
People who have symptoms of infection and live alone are asked to “self-isolate” by staying at home for 10 days from when the symptoms started.
Covid-19 is a respiratory infection. The virus spreads through droplets in the breath and when coughing. It can also survive for up to 72 hours on contaminated surfaces. People can protect themselves and others by covering their mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing and by frequently washing their hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds during the day. They should use hand sanitiser gel if soap and water are not available. Frequently touched surfaces should be cleaned regularly and people should not touch their faces with an unwashed hand.
The latest Government requirements can be found in Stay at home: guidance for households with possible or confirmed coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. The measures are supported by widespread testing and by an NHS Track and Trace system which seeks to identify those who have been in contact with infected individuals.
A national “lockdown” was introduced in the early stages of the pandemic. During this period schools and early years settings were closed, as well as places where people gathered such as pubs, restaurants, sporting events and shops. Restrictions were relaxed in the summer when infection transmission rates fell and schools reopened in September. However, a “second wave” of infection combined with winter illness pressures on the NHS necessitated a second lockdown through November and the introduction of a three tiered system of localised restrictions which it is proposed will remain in place through the early part of 2021.
In December a vaccine was authorised for use in the UK. A mass vaccination programme was launched which will be rolled out over the winter and during 2021, starting with the most vulnerable groups.
School employers and leaders should remember that they have a duty of care towards their staff, pupils, contractors and visitors. They should take reasonable steps to protect their health and safety, preventing them from exposure to unnecessary risk, including the risk of infectious disease.
What should you do as a school?
During the pandemic schools must carry out risk assessments and use appropriate protective measures to keep children and staff safe. Health and safety risk assessments must consider the additional risk that the Covid-19 virus introduces.
Guidance for Full Opening: Schools, published by the Department for Education, sets out the public health controls schools must introduce in order to minimise the risks of coronavirus (Covid-19) transmission. The suggested measures are endorsed by Public Health England. All elements of the system of controls are considered essential. Schools must cover them all. However, the way different schools implement some of the requirements will differ based on individual circumstances.
Schools are expected to work closely with parents, staff and unions.
Guidance states that essential public health controls should include:
a requirement that people who are ill stay at home
robust hand and respiratory hygiene
enhanced cleaning arrangements
active engagement with NHS Test and Trace
formal consideration of how to reduce contacts between those in school, wherever possible, and maximise “social distancing”.
DfE require that minimising contact with people who may have Covid-19 symptoms, thorough hand hygiene, effective respiratory hygiene (ie using tissues to catch coughs) and enhanced cleaning must be in place in all schools all of the time.
Schools must ensure that pupils, staff and other adults do not come into the school if they have Covid-19 symptoms, or have tested positive in at least the last 10 days. They must also have systems in place to ensure that anyone developing symptoms during the school day is sent home. All pupils and staff should be expected to follow the government Stay at Home guidance on self-isolating.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) must be worn by staff caring for any unwell child with Covid-19 symptoms while they await collection if a distance of 2 metres cannot be maintained (such as for a very young child or a child with complex needs). Schools must ensure that suitable PPE is available and that staff follow the guidance in Safe Working in Education, Childcare and Children’s Social Care Settings, Including the Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Schools must ensure that adequate hand hygiene facilities are in place, ie handwashing facilities and/or hand sanitiser. Staff and pupils must be able to clean their hands regularly, including when they arrive in school. Hand cleaning “routines” may be introduced. Additional facilities may be required to avoid over-crowding in wash areas. Hand sanitiser use should be supervised to prevent risks related to ingestion.
Enhanced cleaning schedules should cover all frequently touched surfaces. Schedules should include the more frequent cleaning of toilets and hand washing areas. Schools should consult Covid-19: Cleaning in Non-healthcare Settings Outside the Home for further guidance.
There are a number of organisational arrangements that should allow schools to reduce contacts between people while in school and maximise social distancing. The guidance points out that this will depend on the type of school (ie primary or secondary) and the school’s circumstances. Suggested arrangements include:
grouping children together
avoiding contact between groups
arranging classrooms with forward facing desks
staff maintaining distance from pupils and other staff as much as possible.
For younger children an emphasis on groups will usually be most effective. The consistent grouping of children should reduce the risk of transmission by limiting the number of pupils and staff in contact with each other to only those within each group. Such arrangements were used in schools prior to the summer holidays. Schools must address the logistical and timetabling challenges that such group arrangements will inevitably bring.
For older children and young people there should be more emphasis on social distancing and personal responsibility to comply with public health messages. Such an approach should be supported by classroom adaptations. Staff in secondary schools should be supported to maintain distance from their pupils, staying at the front of the class, and away from their colleagues where possible. Ideally, adults should maintain a 2 metre “social distance” from each other, and from children.
DfE has published guidance on the wearing of face masks or face coverings in schools. Face Coverings in Education applies from the start of September. It states that schools will have the discretion to require face coverings in indoor communal areas where social distancing cannot be safely managed, if they believe that it is right in their particular circumstances. Advice from the World Health Organization suggests that wearing masks or face coverings is a sensible measure to take in order to reduce virus transmission. They recommend that children aged 12 and over should wear a mask under the same conditions as adults. Where face coverings are required, schools should ensure that instructions are clear and that they are worn correctly.
Schools must have appropriate school transport, arrival and pick-up arrangements in place. Staggered start and finish times may help to keep groups apart as they arrive and leave. Face coverings must be worn by pupils on school and public transport. Arrangements must be in place for them to take these off on arrival and wash their hands. Reusable coverings should be kept in plastic bags until home time. Transport capacity will be affected by the need for social distancing on buses and coaches, etc. Schools should work closely with transport providers and with local authorities wherever necessary. It is likely that public transport will be constrained in most areas throughout the autumn term.
SEND pupils and those with education, health and care plans may need additional support to return to school safely. A small number of pupils will be considered “high-risk” from Covid-19 and may need to be “shielded” due to health conditions. Formal shielding arrangements for extremely clinically vulnerable people were paused at the start of August but will be kept under review and may be reinstated in areas where lockdown restrictions need to be reimposed.
Schools should do all they can to support home learning when pupils cannot attend due to the coronavirus pandemic or for health reasons. While staying at home due to coronavirus, parents and carers may be worried about their children’s development and the effect of missing school or nursery. Parents should be encouraged to follow the online DfE advice, Supporting Your Children's Education During Coronavirus (Covid-19).
Staff health and safety should be a key consideration in all schools. Every effort should be made to consult and keep people safe. Guidance for full opening states that staff who are clinically extremely vulnerable can continue to attend school in all local restriction tiers. However, DfE state that under local restriction tier 3, very high alert, staff and employers may wish to discuss flexibilities that support clinically extremely vulnerable staff, such as staggered start times to reduce travel during rush hour.
DfE advise against domestic (UK) overnight and overseas educational visits at this stage. However, non-overnight domestic educational visits can resume. Appropriate risk assessments should be completed and Covid-safe measures put in place.
Schools should ensure that emergency planning and business contingency planning procedures are up to date. Contingency planning should cover what will happen in the event of a class needing to self-isolate. Procedures should also cover local outbreak arrangements where a PHE health protection team or local authority advises a school or number of schools to close temporarily to help control transmission. In such cases remote learning support should be reinstated.
Formal inspections were cancelled at the start of the pandemic. Ofsted announced a programme of support “visits” to schools in England when they reopened in the autumn. These are not formal inspections and no grading is made. Ofsted do not intend to reintroduce routine graded inspections until the summer term 2021.
Schools must comply with testing requirements and guidance. All schools should ensure that their staff, pupils and parents understand and engage with the NHS Test and Trace process. DfE states that schools must take swift action if they become aware that someone who has attended has tested positive for coronavirus.
In December the UK regulatory body, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, authorised use of the first Covid-19 coronavirus vaccine. A major vaccination delivery programme was duly launched with the intention of offering vaccination to all adults in the UK. At present the vaccine available is not licensed for use on those under 16 years of age.
Useful feature articles
Useful news items
Crisis Management Planning: includes several practical resources available to download: Covid-19 General Workplace Safety Return to Work Risk Assessment — Completed Example for Education and Early Years; Contractor and Visitor Covid-19 Guidance; Coronavirus Return to Work Risk Assessment — Completed Example; Coronavirus Staff at Risk — Risk Assessment Template; Covid-19 Re-opening Health and Safety Checklist; Covid-19 Re-opening Hygiene Checklist; and a Coronavirus Handwashing Poster.
Absence, Leave and Holiday Entitlement: guidance on how to manage sickness absence effectively and rights to time off work with or without pay.
Maternity and Family Rights: information on family leave and statutory sick pay.
Cleaning Schools: covers the main requirements and good practice of a cleaning operation.
Medical Conditions and Communicable Diseases: covers all aspects of the Covid-19 pandemic as they relate to schools.
Last reviewed 15 December 2020