New figures show that just one third of managers in the EU are women — and that, even when they reach such positions, they earn only about three-quarters as much as their male colleagues.
According to the EU's statistical office, Eurostat, nearly 7.3 million people hold managerial positions in businesses in the EU that have 10 employees or more.
Of those managers, 4.7 million are men (65%) and 2.6 million are women (35%).
However, overall, women represent about half of all employed people in the Member States and so are clearly under-represented among those in managerial positions.
Eurostat has also found that those women who are in managerial posts earn on average almost a quarter (23.4%) less than men.
Only in Latvia do women account for a majority (53%) of those in managerial positions. Other Member States with proportions of women managers of 40% or above are: Bulgaria and Poland (both 44%), Ireland (43%), Estonia (42%), Lithuania, Hungary and Romania (all 41%) and France and Sweden (both 40%).
The worst-performing Member States are Germany, Italy and Cyprus, where women account for just 22% of all managers.
In the UK, some 36% of managerial positions are held by women, which is just above the EU average of 35%.
With reference to pay, the narrowest gender pay gap for managers is found in Romania (5%), with the widest recorded in Hungary (33.7%) and Italy (33.5%). A female manager in the UK earns, on average, 25.1% less than her male counterparts.
This report and other Eurostat material on the themes of International Women’s Day (8 March 2017) and gender equality can be found at http://bit.ly/2n5dXO4.