A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A (radioactivity level)

Maximum activity of a special form of a radioactive substance permitted in a Type A package.

A (radioactivity level)

Maximum activity of a radioactive substance, other than a special form, permitted in a Type A package.

A&D

Applications and Decisions

A-level

A-level is the advanced-level general certificate of education usually taken after GCSEs.

A-weighted

See .

A-weighted decibel

Abbreviated to dB(A), a convenient single number rating of loudness (derived from the 40 phen equal loudness contour) which mimics changes in the ear's sensitivity with frequency and is implemented in sound level meters by means of electronic filters.

A2

The A-level is divided into two sections. The first year includes the AS units and the second year is called A2.

AAC

Administrative Appeals Chamber

Abatement

With regard to health, safety and environmental law, abatement is the termination, removal or destruction of a nuisance.

Abatement

With regard to health, safety and environmental law, abatement is the termination, removal or destruction of a nuisance.

Abatement Notice

A notice served by a local authority under s.80 of the where the local authority is satisfied that a statutory nuisance exists. The notice will require the statutory nuisance to be abated, or will prohibit its recurrence. It may also require works to be executed to abate the nuisance. Failure to comply with the notice is a criminal offence although there is a right of appeal to the Magistrates' Court.

Abatement notice

This is a notice served by a local authority under s.80 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 where the local authority is satisfied that a statutory nuisance exists. The notice will require the statutory nuisance to be abated, or will prohibit its recurrence. It may also require works to be executed to abate the nuisance. Failure to comply with the notice is a criminal offence although there is a right of appeal to the Magistrates' Court.

AbilityNet

Web: www.abilitynet.org.uk

AbilityNet is a national charity which can carry out assessments and advise on assistive technology.

Abnormal Indivisible Load (AIL)

A load that cannot be broken down into smaller loads without risk of damage or excessive expense. These loads are normally very large, wide or heavy.

Abrasion

In occupational health, abrasion is the wearing away of any surface material, such as skin or mucous membrane, etc through rubbing or scraping.

Abrasion

In occupational health, abrasion is the wearing away of any surface material, such as skin or mucous membrane, etc through rubbing or scraping.

Absolute duty

Absolute duty effectively means that something must be done.

Absolute duty

Absolute duty effectively means that something must be done.

Absolute liability

See and .

Absorbed dose

The amount of energy at a point distant from the radioactive material. The old unit of measurement is the rad; the SI unit is the Gray.

Absorbent

Any substance which, because of its porous nature, absorbs gases or liquids or particular components of gaseous or liquid mixtures. In respiratory protection the absorbent is the filtering medium which combines chemically with the contaminant gas. The term adsorbent is used to describe filtering media, eg charcoal, to which the contaminant gas molecules are attached by Van der Waal's forces.

Absorption

A costing technique in which overheads are recovered by transferring the costs to revenue-earning cost centres so that they can be recovered by inclusion in the charge-out rate.

Absorption

In occupational health terms, one of the routes of entry into a body, especially through broken or unbroken skin.

Abuse

A single act or repeated acts or the lack of appropriate action which occurs within a relationship where there is an expectation of trust, and which causes a person harm or distress. Abuse of adults has been variously categorised, but is usually accepted as including physical, emotional, oral, financial, material, sexual and racial abuse, and neglect, together with abuse through inappropriate restraint, the misapplication of drugs or use of inhuman or degrading treatment

Academically More Able

Academically more able pupils (previously known as “gifted and talented” pupils) are those who have abilities in one or more academic subjects such as maths or English.

Academy

Academies are state-funded independent schools, which are allowed to set their own pay and conditions for staff and the lengths of their terms and school days. They are also free from following the National Curriculum and from local authority control.

Access

The means of entry into a building/work area, etc.

Access and egress

The means of entry to (access) and means of exit from (egress) a building or work area, etc.

Access and egress

The means of entry to (access) and means of exit from (egress) a building or work area, etc.

Access Control

Access control is the use of manpower and procedures, as well as electrical and mechanical components, to regulate entry into specified premises. An access control system is one which allows authorised people to enter a given area and denies access to unauthorised people.

Access equipment

Access equipment refers to equipment such as ladders, stepladders, trestles, scaffolds, tower scaffolds, suspended access systems (eg cradles and chairs) and work platforms.

Access equipment

Access equipment refers to equipment such as ladders, stepladders, trestles, scaffolds, tower scaffolds, suspended access systems (eg cradles and chairs) and work platforms.

Access to files

Arrangements for a service user to consult, and if necessary challenge, the records kept on them, while preserving the confidentiality of others.

Accessory for lifting

A term meaning “lifting tackle”, introduced by the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER).

Accessory for lifting

A term meaning “lifting tackle”, introduced by the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER).

Accident

Any unplanned event that results in the injury or ill health of people, damage or loss to property, plant, materials or the environment, or a loss of business opportunity.

Accident

An accident is any unintended and unexpected occurrence, which produces hurt, damage or loss.

Accident

An accident is any unintended and unexpected occurrence, which produces hurt, damage or loss.

Accident book

A written record of accidents for premises which come under the Factories Act 1961, or for companies with 10 or more employees, which meets with the requirements of the Social Security (Claims and Payments) Regulations 1979 (SSCPR).

Accident book

A written record of accidents for premises which come under the Factories Act 1961, or for companies with 10 or more employees, which meets with the requirements of the Social Security (Claims and Payments) Regulations 1979 (SSCPR).

Accident causation

A term used to describe the process leading to an incident, which may or may not have resulted in an injury, damage or loss.

Accident causation

A term used to describe the process leading to an incident, which may or may not have resulted in an injury, damage or loss.

Accident costs

Many employers may not realise the extent of injury and ill health arising from work activities. Cost of accidents can be sub-divided into insured and uninsured costs.

Accident costs

Many employers may not realise the extent of injury and ill health arising from work activities. Cost of accidents can be sub-divided into insured and uninsured costs.

Accident investigation

The means to establish how a reoccurrence of an accident can be prevented and of learning how to improve accident prevention within an organisation by investigating root causes.

Accident investigation

The means to establish how a reoccurrence of an accident can be prevented and of learning how to improve accident prevention within an organisation by investigating root causes.

Accident investigation

The means to establish how a reoccurrence of an accident can be prevented and of learning how to improve accident prevention within an organisation by investigating root causes.

Accident prevention

The prevention of accidents before they have chance to occur.

Accident prevention

The prevention of accidents before they have chance to occur.

Accident prevention

The prevention of accidents before they have chance to occur.

Accident records

There is a legal requirement to record accidents in the accident book (BI 510 or an approved book) and a legal duty to record accidents that are reportable under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR).

Accident records

There is a legal requirement to record accidents in the accident book (BI 510 or an approved book) and a legal duty to record accidents that are reportable under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR).

Accident records

There is a legal requirement to record accidents in the accident book (BI 510 or an approved book) and a legal duty to record accidents that are reportable under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR).

Accident reporting

All accidents at work should be reported and recorded in the accident book (BI 510 or an approved book). In addition, there is a duty under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) to report injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences to the HSE or local authority.

Accident reporting

All accidents at work should be reported and recorded in the accident book (BI 510 or an approved book). In addition, there is a duty under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) to report injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences to the HSE or local authority.

Accident reporting

All accidents at work should be reported and recorded in the accident book (BI 510 or an approved book). In addition, there is a duty under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) to report injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences to the HSE or local authority.

Accident statistics

Numerical data, organised and presented to show what is significant, are an essential tool in the prevention of accidents as part of effective health and safety management.

Accident statistics

Numerical data, organised and presented to show what is significant, are an essential tool in the prevention of accidents as part of effective health and safety management.

Accompanied vehicles

Road vehicles travelling on ro-ro ferry ships or on the Channel Tunnel rail freight shuttle service, where the driver travels with the vehicle so as to be available to drive it through to its final destination.

Accord Européen Relatif au Transport International des Marchandises Dangereuses par Route (ADR)

The European Agreement for the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road which provides a common set of regulations for the movement of dangerous goods within Europe.

Accord Européen sur les Transports Routiers (AETR)

The European Agreement on work of crews of vehicles engaged in international road transport. These drivers' hours rules apply to drivers travelling through some states which are not in the European Union and therefore are not covered by EU Regulation 561/2006 on drivers' hours. The rules have now been aligned with the EU Regulation.

Accord relatif aux transports internationaux de denrees perissables et aux engins speciaux a utiliser pour ces transports (ATP)

The Agreement on the International Transport of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the special equipment to be used for such transport which applies to journeys made by road and rail and to sea crossings of less than 150km that are preceded by road or rail legs and the goods are carried in the road or rail vehicle. The purpose of the agreement is to set common standards for the international movement of certain perishable foodstuffs.

ACDP

See .

Achievement and Attainment Tables

Achievement and attainment tables contain annual pupil performance information, including National Curriculum test results for primary schools and exam results for secondary schools. The tables compare schools within a particular area and within England as a whole.

Acid

A proton donor.

ACOP

See Approved Code of Practice.

ACOP

See .

Acoustic trauma

A change in hearing threshold, sometimes referred to as acute acoustic trauma, brought on by a single, relatively intense noise exposure.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

A disease caused by a retrovirus called T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III). It is spread through sexual contact, contact with body fluids of an infected individual, the use of unclean needles and through (infected) blood transfusions and is found throughout the world.

Act

Acts lay down general principles and allow for , such as Regulations, to be passed, eg the Health and Safety at Work, etc Act 1974.

Act (of Parliament)

A statute or document drawn up by legislators and involving discussion with many professionals.

Actinic UV radiation

UV radiation from 200nm–320nm, in which most biological hazards occur.

Action levels

Established levels or measurements, eg of sound or concentration of dust, at which point certain actions must be taken or carried out.

Action levels

Established levels or measurements, eg of sound or concentration of dust, at which point certain actions must be taken or carried out.

Action on Smoking and Health (ASH)

Web: www.ash.org.ukAction on Smoking and Health is the public health charity that campaigns to eliminate the harm caused by tobacco.

Action on Smoking and Health (ASH)

Web: www.ash.org.uk

Action on Smoking and Health is the public health charity that campaigns to eliminate the harm caused by tobacco.

Action values

When conducting noise assessments worker exposures should be compared with the action values which are defined in regulation 4 of the Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005.

  • Lower action value — a daily or weekly personal noise exposure of 80dB(A) and a peak sound pressure of 135dB(C).

  • Upper action value — a daily or weekly personal noise exposure of 85dB(A) and a peak sound pressure of 137dB(C).

How exposures compare with the action levels determines what employers are required to do to fulfil their duties under the regulations.

Active Learning

Occurs when children are motivated to learn and interested in finding things out for themselves.

Activity Led Funding (ALF)

Activity led funding is based on costing the number of staff and resources needed to run a particular activity in schools.

Acute

In occupational health terms, meaning sudden, severe and of short duration. Opposite of chronic.

Acute exposure

Short-term exposure to a hazardous substance.

Acute health effect

A reaction within a short period following a single exposure to a toxin or micro-organism. The acute health effect can be contrasted with the chronic health effect.

Acute Reference Dose

The ARfD is an estimate of a chemical substance, expressed on a bodyweight basis, to which a human population (including sensitive subgroups) can be exposed over a short period of time (24 hours or less), without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime.

Acute toxicity

The adverse effects occurring within a short time of administration/exposure of a single dose or of multiple doses given/occurring within 24 hours. The effect is often mortality but may also include immobilisation of aquatic organisms.

Acute toxicity

Relates to the acute effects to some part of the body (eg skin or liver) resulting from a single dose of, or exposure to, a poisonous substance.

Adaptation to Technical Progress (of EC Directive) (ATP)

Directives made by the European Parliament and/or Council under the internal market provisions of the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC) often provide for the technical content, usually placed in Annexes, to be amended by a simpler process than that process required to amend the main articles of the directive. This process is known as Adapting to Technical Progress the Directive. When a decision has been reached about the amendments, the legislative instrument, eg a European Commission directive or decision that is created to publish and give effect to these amendments is known as an ATP. Since a directive may be subject to several ATPs they may be referred to in short form. Hence Commission Directive 2004/73/EC adapting the Annex I of the 67/458/EEC Dangerous Substances Directive (DSD) is often known as the 29th ATP to the DSD.

Adaptations

Modifications made to buildings or equipment to make them accessible to, and usable by, people with disabilities.

Adblue

Trade name for a urea-based additive for use with diesel engines fitted with selective catalytic reduction. Contained in a separate tank on the vehicle and injected into the exhaust system to reduce emissions. Generically known as diesel exhaust fluid (DEF).

Additional and Specialist Learning (ASL)

Additional and specialist learning is one of the three main elements of the 14-19 Diploma, which gives learners the option to add depth and breadth to their studies.

Additional Inspector (AI)

An additional inspector is an independent, often self-employed, school inspector who is accredited to take part in and lead Ofsted inspections.

Additional Literacy Support (ALS)

Additional literacy support provides extra support for pupils in years 3 and 4 who have insecure literacy skills.

Additive effect (mixtures)

Exposures where the effects of the components reinforce each other and the substances are additive in effect.

Adequate and suitable

In health and safety terms, suitable and sufficient for the purpose, eg to enable employees, so far as is reasonably practicable, to identify and avoid a particular risk to their health and safety.

Adequate and suitable

In health and safety terms, suitable and sufficient for the purpose, eg to enable employees, so far as is reasonably practicable, to identify and avoid a particular risk to their health and safety.

Adequate shielding

Shielding, or a demarcating barrier, beyond which average radiation dose rate/minute 40.75mrem/h (7.5µSv/h), or 2.5mrem/h (25µSv/h) for “classified” workers.

Adiabatic

Taking place without gain or loss of heat.

Administrative Appeals Chamber (AAC)

The body that deals with appeals relating to goods vehicle operator licences and operating centres. Appeals under the Transport (Scotland) Act 2001 remain under the jurisdiction of the Transport Tribunal but can be made alongside appeals to the Upper Tribunal and using the same appeal forms.

Admission

The process by which a person enters a home or other residential setting, involving an assessment, the service user's and the establishment’s decisions to proceed, the agreement and signing of the contract, the physical arrival of the person at the home and their introduction and settling in period.

ADN

European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways. There are no applicable waterways in Great Britain, but the system is recognised in Europe.

ADNR

Regulations for the Carriage of Dangerous Substances on the Rhine, produced by the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine.

ADR

European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road. As an agreement, ADR has no direct legal force in the UK. It is, however, made mandatory by GB regulations.

ADR

Accord Européen Relatif au Transport International des Marchandises Dangereuses par Route (European Agreement on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road)

ADR

An abbreviation for the Annexes to the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road, as amended.

ADR Framework Directive

Council Directive 94/55/EC on the approximation of laws of Member States with regard to the transport of dangerous goods by road. Came into force in January 1997.

Adsorbent

Filtering media, eg charcoal, to which the contaminant gas molecules are attached by Van der Waal's forces. The term absorbent describes any substance which, because of its porous nature, absorbs gases or liquids or particular components of gaseous or liquid mixtures.

Adsorption

The uptake of a substance from the water phase onto a solid phase. Such adsorption can typically occur from water onto sediments and soil. Usually expressed as Koc, the adsorption coefficient normalised for the organic carbon content of the soil or sediment.

Adult protection

The policies, procedures and processes of protecting vulnerable adults from abuse.

Adult Social Services Department

The department of a local authority, sometimes known by a slightly different name, which is responsible for providing or commissioning social care services for older people, younger adults and other vulnerable groups.

Adult-led

In adult-led activities the adult decides what the child will do, unlike in child-initiated activities (see below).

Adults Other Than Teachers (AOTT)

Adults other than teachers take on a variety of roles such as dinner-time supervisors, classroom assistants, peripatetic teachers and education welfare officers.

Advanced General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ)

An Advanced General National Vocational Qualification is equivalent to two A-levels.

Advanced Level Information System (AliS)

The Advanced Level Information System provides performance indicators for post-16 students across all sectors of education and provides an analysis of A-level, AS-level and Advanced GNVQ examinations.

Adverse drug reaction

An unwanted or unexpected reaction to a medicine.

Adverse effect

Change in morphology, physiology, growth, development or lifespan of an organism which results in impairment of its functional capacity or impairment of its capacity to compensate for additional stress or increased susceptibility to the harmful effects of other environmental influences.

Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens (ACDP)

This committee advises the Health and Safety Executive, and ministers for the Department of Health and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), and their counterparts under devolution in Scotland, Wales and Northern on all aspects of hazards and risks to workers and others from exposure to pathogens. The ACDP produces guidance on a range of dangerous pathogens-related subjects.

Advisory letter

If a traffic examiner finds an infringement that warrants more than a verbal warning but is not serious enough for prosecution, then an advisory letter might be issued advising the operator of the problem and the need for them to take rectifying action.

Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Acas)

Web: www.acas.org.ukThe Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service is a public body dealing with employment relations.

Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Acas)

Web: www.acas.org.uk

The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service is a public body dealing with employment relations.

Advocacy

The action of an advocate, representing service users to help them to say what they want and to obtain their rights and appropriate services.

Advocate

A person who is independent of the home or service and of the other agencies involved in purchasing, providing or regulating care, who acts on behalf of, and in the interests of, service users who feel unable to represent themselves in dealing with practitioners.

Aerobe

Bacterium that will grow in the presence of molecular oxygen.

Aerosol

A system of particles, liquid or solid, dispersed in air or in a gas, the individual particles of which are sufficiently small to remain suspended for considerable lengths of time due to a low falling velocity <0.25 m/s.

Aerosol dispenser

Non-reuseable container, containing a compressed, liquefied or dissolved gas, with or without a liquid, paste or powder, with a release device allowing the contents to be ejected as a solid, liquid, paste or powder.

Aerosol formation (applied to infectious substances)

The liberation of a cloud of infectious agents into the air, as a result of disruption of liquid films, etc. Inhaled particles <5µm diameter can penetrate into the lungs.

AETR

Accord Européen sur les Transports Routiers (European Agreement on the work of crews of vehicles engaged in international road transport)

Age discrimination

Action based on chronological age alone which disadvantages an older person. Discrimination can also be positive, involving action specifically taken to promote the best interests of older people, but age discrimination is generally used negatively.

Age-weighted Pupil Units (AWPUs)

Age-weighted pupil units are funds attached to pupils that vary according to the pupils’ ages.

Agency

An organisation involved in the provision of care.

Aggregated Schools Budget (ASB)

The aggregated schools budget is the total amount allocated to schools under common formula funding arrangements.

Agreed Syllabus

An agreed syllabus is a syllabus of religious education that a local authority has agreed to be included in teaching in county or controlled schools.

Agricultural waste

Divided into four categories: silage liquors; straw; slurry (excreta) and chemical wastes; containers which have been used for such things as sheep dips, pesticides and fertilisers.

AIDS

See .

AIL

Abnormal Indivisible Load

Air exchange rate

The rate at which air in an enclosed space is exchanged with that outside, expressed in terms of the volume enclosed. Volume flow rate/volume of space enclosed.

Air flow meter

An instrument to measure the volume flow of air, eg in ventilation systems.

Air monitoring/environmental monitoring

The systematic collection and assessment of airborne substances.

Air pollutant (contaminant)

Any material substance emitted into the atmosphere either by human activity or natural processes, which adversely affects humans and/or the environment.

Air pollution

Toxic gases or particulate matter, released into the atmosphere, and with the potential to cause harm. Air pollution is typically a result of human activity.

Air pollution

Toxic gases or particulate matter, released into the atmosphere, and with the potential to cause harm. Air pollution is typically a result of human activity.

Air pollution control

  1. The application of engineering or other means to eliminate or reduce emissions of the air pollutant.

  2. Legislative and administration measure to eliminate or reduce air pollution.

Air pollution control (APC)

A regime for air pollution, originally made under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and now applied through the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2007.

Air pollution control (APC)

A regime for air pollution, originally made under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and now applied through the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2007.

Air quality standards

Concentrations of specific pollutants over a given time period that are considered to be acceptable in the light of what is scientifically known about the effects of each pollutant on health and on the environment.

Air quality standards

Concentrations of specific pollutants over a given time period that are considered to be acceptable in the light of what is scientifically known about the effects of each pollutant on health and on the environment.

Air sampling

A measurement technique which establishes air quality and levels of contaminant. The techniques used include direct monitoring, dust sampling, and grab sampling, humidity monitoring, personal sampling and static sampling.

Air sampling

A measurement technique which establishes air quality and levels of contaminant. The techniques used include direct monitoring, dust sampling, and grab sampling, humidity monitoring, personal sampling and static sampling.

Air spring

A spring using air under pressure as the compressible medium.

Air suspension

A suspension system in which at least 75% of the spring effort is provided by an air spring.

Air Waybill

Document covering goods carried by air, which forms the contract of carriage and is signed by the shipper and the airline; 12 copies are usually required.

Air-conditioning system

An air-conditioning system is a form of mechanical ventilation that serves to filter, purify and recirculate air within a building. This helps to eliminate stale air, fumes and other contaminants.

Airline

Flexible hose used to supply fresh air under pressure, usually to respiratory protective equipment.

Airlock

A chamber placed between the clean and dirty sides of a containment facility to prevent (by means of interlocked door and differential air pressures) the outflow of contaminated air.

Alarm

Web: www.alarm-uk.org

Alarm is a membership organisation for risk practitioners across all professions within public service and community organisations. It aims to provide guidance in terms of best practice for both new and more experienced risk managers.

Allergen

A substance, foreign to the body, capable of inducing allergy.

Allergy

A hypersensitivity to substances foreign to the body (allergens), induced by exposure to them. Exposure can be via inhalations, skin contact or ingestion.

Allocation

The process of charging direct costs to the relevant cost centre.

Alloy

Ametallic material, homogenous on a macroscopic scale, consisting of two or more elements so combined that they can not be readily separated by mechanical means.

Alpha particles

These do not generally penetrate the skin. However, if they are swallowed or penetrate a wound they can cause substantial damage. They are relatively easily stopped by paper or thin foil type materials.

Alternative energy

Energy created from sources that are not typically used, and usually environmentally benign. Alternative energy sources include solar-voltaic, solar-water heating, wave power and wind energy. Alternative energy sources do not use fossil fuels.

Alternative energy

Energy created from sources that are not typically used, and usually environmentally benign. Alternative energy sources include solar-voltaic, solar-water heating, wave power and wind energy. Alternative energy sources do not use fossil fuels.

Alternative energy

Energy created from sources that are not typically used, and usually environmentally benign. Alternative energy sources include solar-voltaic, solar-water heating, wave power and wind energy. Alternative energy sources do not use fossil fuels.

Alternative escape routes

Escape routes sufficiently separated by either direction and space, or by fire resisting construction, to ensure that one is still available should the other be affected by fire.

Alternative Provision

Alternative provision is education in an institution other than a mainstream school and includes pupil referral units.

Alternative Provision Academy

Alternative provision academies are a new type of academy created under the Education Act 2011. They are principally concerned with providing full- or part-time education for children of compulsory school age who may not otherwise receive a suitable education (for example because of illness or exclusion from school).

Alternative transport modes

Road, rail, inland waterway, sea and air transport.

Alternatively fuelled vehicle

a vehicle using fuel or a power source which serves, at least partly, as a substitute for fossil oil sources consisting of:

  • electricity consumed in all types of electric vehicles

  • hydrogen

  • natural gas, including biomethane, in gaseous form and liquefied form

  • liquefied petroleum gas

  • mechanical energy from on-board sources, including waste heat.

Alveoli

Minute sacks in the lung, arranged similarly to bunches of grapes, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Through the walls of the sacks carbon dioxide leaves the blood and the blood takes on oxygen.

Amalgam

Mixture or alloy of mercury with other metal(s) or alloy(s).

Ambient temperature

Temperature of the general surroundings, or at which a physical or chemical reaction occurs.

Ames' test

A type of mutation test often used for assessing chemicals for potential mutagenic properties.

Amorphous

Non-crystalline, with no characteristic solid form.

Amphibole

Any of a group of complex silicate minerals with crystal-like structures that contain calcium, sodium, magnesium, aluminium and iron ions or a combination of them. Asbestos is an example of such a mineral.

Ampoules

Small, sealed glass vessels.

Anaerobe

Bacterium that will not grow in the presences of molecular oxygen.

Anhydrous

Not containing water in any form.

Anode

The positive electrode.

Anoxia

The lack of oxygen in the blood and tissues usually resulting from low partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air.

Anthrax

An acute infective notifiable disease caused by the anthrax bacillus, communicated from animals (alive or dead) to human beings.

Anthropometrics

The measurement and recording of the size and proportions of the human body.

Anthropometrics

The measurement and recording of the size and proportions of the human body.

Anti-discriminatory practice

Identifies all forms of prejudice and discrimination; it challenges and takes action to remove them and is proactive in identifying and preventing the learning of prejudice and the practice of discrimination.

Anti-Pollution Works Regulations 1999

These regulations for England and Wales, together with similar laws for Scotland and Northern Ireland, were introduced under the Water Resources Act 1991 (WRA), and give national regulators the power to issue a works notice to the person responsible for a site or premises threatening to pollute the water environment and to take preventative action.

Antigenic substances

Substances which are commonly linked to increased sensitivity in asthmatics, eg pollen and dust-mite faeces.

Antigenic substances

Substances which are commonly linked to increased sensitivity in asthmatics, eg pollen and dust-mite faeces.

Antipsychotic drugs

Drugs properly used to treat psychosis, including schizophrenia, but also often given to people with dementia.

Apparatus fitted to a vehicle

A crane, dynamo, welding plant or other special appliance or apparatus, being a permanent or essentially permanent fixture, fitted to a motor vehicle is deemed to be part of a vehicle.

Appeal

A proceeding by which the decision of an inspector, a lower court or a tribunal is challenged in a higher court by one or any of the parties.

Appeal

A proceeding by which the decision of an inspector, a lower court or a tribunal is challenged in a higher court by one or any of the parties.

Applications and Decisions (A&D)

A booklet, normally published fortnightly by traffic area offices, containing information on operator licence applications and Traffic Commissioner decisions on the grant, revocation, suspension or curtailment of the said licences. Also available online

Appointed doctor

Registered medical practitioner, appointed as factory doctor.

Appointed person

A person regarded as competent, in respect of his or her qualifications and experience, to carry out the duty for which they are appointed — eg an appointed doctor would be a fully registered medical practitioner appointed by written certificate of the chief employment medical advisor.

Appointed person

An appointed person is regarded as competent, in respect of his or her qualifications and experience, to carry out the duty for which they are appointed — eg an appointed doctor would be a fully registered medical practitioner appointed by written certificate of the chief employment medical advisor.

Apportionment

The process by which overheads are charged proportionately to cost centres, For example, the maintenance department overheads are shared between individual vehicles on the basis of the number of hours spent maintaining each vehicle.

Appraisal

An appraisal is the process for assessing how well a member of staff is carrying out his or her job.

Appraisal

An appraisal is the process for assessing how well a member of staff is carrying out their job.

Apprenticeship

An apprenticeship combines work with the opportunity to gain qualifications.

Approved Code of Practice (ACOP)

Documents approved by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which give practical advice on how to comply with the law.

Approved Code of Practice (ACoP)

A Code of Practice which has been “approved” by the Health and Safety Executive, as provided under s.16 of the . An Approved Code of Practice may be used in criminal proceedings.

Approved List

Lists which have been approved by the HSE.

Approved List of biological agents

Published by the Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens (ACDP), this list classifies biological agents (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi and prions) into hazard groups.

Approved Social Worker

An approved social worker is a qualified social worker who has had additional training and is able to carry out a range of statutory duties under the Mental Health Act.

Approved Supply List

Provides information approved for the classification and labelling of substances and preparations dangerous for supply as required by the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002 (CHIP) (as amended).

Approved workplace exposure limits list

A legally binding list of workplace exposure limits (WELs), published as EH40 Workplace Exposure Limits by the HSE and updated at intervals.

Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)

The concentrate contains perfluorosurfactants which, when added to water at between 1% and 3%, cause a marked reduction in surface tension.

Aqueous solutions

Solutions containing water.

Area Child Protection Committee (ACPC)

A local authority, in exercising their social services function, must ensure that there is an Area Child Protection Committee covering their area, to bring together representatives of each of the main agencies responsible for helping to protect children from abuse and neglect.

Area of outstanding natural beauty

An area of countryside outside a national park which Natural England has identified as having a landscape where it is desirable that special controls should apply, as amended by the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and replaced by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000, which came into force on 1 April 2001.

Arising out of and in the course of insured employment

A requirement that must be satisfied by a claimant in order to obtain industrially-based benefit.

Arm’s-length Body

An arm’s-length organisation carries out processes of Government but is not a government department or part of one.

Aromatic substances

Group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons.

Arsine

A highly dangerous gas generated suddenly and without irritant warning when metal ores or metals such as zinc (or lead or cadmium) containing impurities of arsenic come into contact with acid.

Arthropods

Animals with hard exoskeletons and jointed limbs; includes insects, mites, fleas and bugs.

Article of Governance

An Article of Governance is the legal document setting out the powers and duties of governing bodies, the Head and where appropriate, the local authority.

Articles, for use at work

Any plant designed for use or operation “by persons at work and any article designed for use as a component in any such plant” (Health and Safety at Work, etc Act s.53(1)).

Articles, for use at work

Any plant designed for use or operation “by persons at work and any article designed for use as a component in any such plant” (Health and Safety at Work, etc Act s.53(1)).

Articulated bus

A bus so constructed that it can be divided (but only by using workshop facilities) into two vehicles, one of which is a motor vehicle, and passengers can at all times pass from one part to another.

Articulated vehicle

A vehicle combination, not being an articulated bus, comprising a powered tractive unit and a semi-trailer attached so that at least 20% of the weight of the load, when uniformly distributed, is borne by the tractive unit.

AS-level

An AS-level is the first part of the advanced-level course. It can also be taken as a stand-alone qualification.

Asbestos

A natural mineral comprised of silicate fibre, differentiated as serpentine or amphibole.

Asbestos

A natural mineral comprised of silicate fibre, differentiated as serpentine or amphibole.

Asbestos (Prohibitions) (Amendment) Regulations 1999

Revoked and replaced by the Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006.

Asbestos (Prohibitions) (Amendment) Regulations 1999

Revoked and replaced by the Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006.

Asbestos area

An area where any employee would be liable to be exposed to asbestos and which is subject to regulations of the Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006.

Asbestos area

An area where any employee would be liable to be exposed to asbestos and which is subject to regulations of the Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006.

Asbestos disposal

See .

Asbestos disposal

See Disposal of hazardous waste.

Asbestos Products (Safety) Regulations 1985

As amended in 1987, these regulations identify the labels that must be affixed to products containing asbestos and prohibit the supply of products containing crocidolite or amosite.

Asbestos Products (Safety) Regulations 1985

As amended in 1987, these regulations identify the labels that must be affixed to products containing asbestos and prohibit the supply of products containing crocidolite or amosite.

Asbestosis

A chronic lung inflammation caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres.

Asbestosis

A chronic lung inflammation caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres.

Asbestosis

A chronic lung inflammation caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres.

Asphyxia

Lack of oxygen and interference with oxygenation of the blood leading to unconsciousness and death.

Asphyxiant

A gas which can cause anoxia and potentially death by displacing air to the point at which the partial pressure of oxygen is insufficient to support life.

Aspirating fire detection system

A fire detection system in which a sample of the atmosphere in the protected space is sucked by a fan or pump into a detector which may be remote from the protected space.

Assaults (on employees/staff)

See .

Assessment

A legal duty placed on all employers which means, in health, safety and environmental terms, the measurement and evaluation of, for example, a risk by a competent person including consideration of what action is required and of the possible consequences of failing to take action.

Assessment

A legal duty placed on all employers which means, in health, safety and environmental terms, the measurement and evaluation of, for example, a risk by a competent person including consideration of what action is required and of the possible consequences of failing to take action.

Assessment

To help children progress practitioners need information about what the children know, understand and can do. Assessment is carried out in early years settings by observing children and making notes on achievements, this enables practitioners to determine the next steps in learning for each child. Assessment also allows practitioners to share information with parents and carers about their children's progress.

Assessment

The process of identifying the needs of a person and evaluating their impact on daily living and quality of life by systematically collecting and interpreting appropriate information about them, their lifestyle and their history. Assessment, undertaken with the person concerned and perhaps with their relatives or representative, should be the basis for any sort of planning of care, as diagnosis is for medical treatment. Assessment often involves input from a range of people from different specialisms and is then described as multidisciplinary.

Assessment factor

A number used to derive a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) usually from the result(s) of a single-species test. A NOEC, EC50 or LC50 obtained from the test, study or trial is divided by the assessment factor, obtained from the Technical Guidance Document , to give the PNEC. The size of the assessment factor depends on the amount of information available.

Assessment for Learning

Assessment for learning is the process of finding evidence to show how learners are progressing.

Assessment Profile on Entry for Children and Toddlers (ASPECT)

Assessment Profile on Entry for Children and Toddlers is a teacher assessment on each of the six areas of learning covered by the foundation stage curriculum.

Asset Management Plan (AMP)

Local authorities have a statutory duty to draw up an asset management plan for all schools under their control. The AMP is the basis on which capital funds received from central government should be allocated to schools.

Assistant Head (AH)

An assistant Head is a member of the school senior management team with a specific brief to assist a Head in carrying out their duties.

Assisted bath

A bath which is designed to permit side or end access for a mobile hoist or other mechanism, so that service users with a disability can be conveniently and safely transferred from a bed, couch or trolley into the bath.

Association for Achievement and Improvement through Assessment (AAIA)

Web: www.aaia.org.uk

The Association for Achievement and Improvement through Assessment is the professional association for those with an interest in assessment, recording and reporting.

Association for Science Education (ASE)

Web: www.ase.org.uk

The Association for Science Education is the UK’s largest science association dedicated to the teaching of science and the provision of quality teaching and learning resources.

Association of Colleges (AoC)

Web: www.aoc.co.uk

The Association of Colleges represents further education colleges, sixth form colleges and specialist colleges in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Association of Educational Psychologists (AEP)

Web: www.aep.org.uk

The Association of Educational Psychologists is the professional association and trade union for educational psychologists.

Association of Professionals in Education and Children's Trusts (Aspect)

Web: www.aspect.org.uk

The Association of Professionals in Education and Children's Trusts is a professional association for educational inspectors, advisers and consultants.

Association of School and College Leaders (ACSL)

Web: www.ascl.org.uk

The Association of School and College Leaders is a professional association and trade union that represents secondary school and college leaders.

Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL)

Web: www.atl.org.uk

The Association of Teachers and Lecturers is the trade union and professional association for school teachers and lecturers

Assumed maximum are of operation (AMAO) of a sprinkler system

The maximum area over which it is assumed, for design purposes, that sprinklers will operate in a fire.

Asthma

An allergic reaction leading to restriction of the bronchi.

Asthma (occupational or industrial)

A multi-factorial pulmonary disease, triggered by exposure to and/or contact with a sensitising agent found in the workplace.

At work

Work carried out in “the course of employment” (Health and Safety at Work, etc Act 1974).

At work

Work carried out in “the course of employment” (Health and Safety at Work, etc Act 1974).

ATA Carnets

The ATA Carnet is an international customs document which allows for the temporary importation of goods into countries that are part of the scheme. The goods must fall into accepted categories such as commercial samples, broadcasting equipment, or goods to be displayed at trade exhibitions.

ATF

Authorised Testing Facility

Atmospheric pressure

Pressure exerted by the atmosphere at the earth's surface, equal to about 1kg/cm2.

Atomic number

Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

ATP

Accord Relatif aux Transports Internationaux de Denrees Perissables et aux engins speciaux autiliser pour ces transports (Agreement on the International Transport of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the special equipment to be used for such carriage)

Attachment

Attachment behaviour is shown when babies and young children actively seek close relationships with their parents and other primary caregivers.

Attainment Target (AT)

An attainment target sets down the expected standard for pupils' performance at the end of each Key Stage which occurs at ages 7, 11, 14 and 16.

Attendance Support Team (AST)

An attendance support team is usually employed by a local authority as part of the education welfare department.

Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder is a condition that not only limits pupils' concentration span and ability to stay on task but will also cause them to divert to other non-related activities.

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

Attention Deficit Disorder is a condition that limits the concentration span of pupils making it difficult for them to stay on task.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a range of conditions that can make it difficult for children to concentrate and may result in them being hyperactive or showing signs of impulsive behaviour.

Attenuation

Reduction of noise levels.

Attenuator

Device for reducing the strength of an electric signal or current.

Audible sound

Sound between the frequencies of 20–20,000 hertz that can be heard by persons with normal hearing.

Audiometry

The measurement of the acuity (sharpness, perception) of hearing at various frequencies of sound waves.

Audiometry

The technique for testing and measuring hearing capability.

Audit

A safety audit subjects each area of a company's activity to a systematic critical examination, with the object of minimizing loss. Every component of the total system is included.

Audit

A safety audit subjects each area of a company's activity to a systematic critical examination, with the object of minimising loss. Every component of the total system is included.

Audit Commission

Web: www.audit-commission.gov.ukThe Audit Commission is an independent body set up by government with the responsibility of ensuring that public money is used economically, efficiently and effectively.

Audit Commission

The independent Government body which monitors and reports on some local authority and other public sector services.

Audit Commission

Web: www.audit-commission.gov.uk

The Audit Commission is an independent body set up by government with the responsibility of ensuring that public money is used economically, efficiently and effectively.

Authorisation

  1. An authorisation granted under Part I of the (ie or ) and the . Authorisations are granted by the relevant regulatory body, either the Environment Agency or a local authority.

  2. REACH sets up a system under which the use of substances with properties of very high concern and their placing on the market can be made subject to an authorisation requirement. Such substances are included in Annex XIV of the Regulation, and may not be placed on the market or used without an authorisation. This authorisation requirement ensures that risks from the use of such substances are either adequately controlled or outweighed by socio-economic benefits. An analysis of alternative substances or technologies will be a fundamental component of the authorisation process.

Authorisation

This generally refers to an authorisation granted under Part I of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (ie Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) or Local Air Pollution Control (LAPC)) and the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. Authorisations are granted by the relevant regulatory body, either the Environment Agency or a local authority.

Authorised Absence

An authorised absence is one where permission has been obtained from a teacher or other authorised representative.

Authorised examiner

An individual, partnership or company approved by the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA) to carry out annual inspections of vehicles under the MoT test scheme.

Authorised person

Person authorised in writing by the occupier of a factory to perform a specified operation.

Authorised Testing Facility (ATF)

Commercial premises authorised by the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA) for the conduct of annual inspections on heavy goods and passenger vehicles.

Authorised vehicles

The maximum number of vehicles that can be operated under an operator licence, as granted by the Traffic Commissioner.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

An Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex, lifelong developmental disability that affects the way a person communicates with and relates to others around them.

Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Autism occurs in differing degrees of severity and in a variety of forms, including Asperger's syndrome which describes people at the higher functioning end of the autistic spectrum.

Auto-dialler

A device that transmits a fire alarm warning to a remote centre by establishing communications via a switched telephone network.

Auto-flammability (pyrophoric)

Applies to any substance which will spontaneously ignite in air below 54.4°C.

Auto-ignition point (or auto-ignition temperature)

Minimum temperature required to cause self-sustained combustion in any substance in the absence of a spark or flame.

Autoclave

A pressure vessel used for sterilisation at temperatures above 100°C.

Automatic fire detection system

A fire alarm system in which the alarm of fire can be initiated automatically by fire detectors.

Automatic release mechanism

A device that may be used for holding a door in the open position, against the action of a door closer, and automatically releasing under specified conditions.

Automatic sprinkler system

A system of water pipes fitted with sprinkler heads at suitable intervals and heights and designed to control or extinguish a fire by the discharge of water, in which each of the heads opens automatically at a specified temperature.

Automatic sprinkler system, alternate

An automatic sprinkler system in which the pipes may optionally be charged with air or water.

Automatic sprinkler system, dry pipe

An automatic sprinkler system in which the pipes are normally charged with air to avoid the risk of water freezing in the pipes.

Automatic sprinkler system, wet pipe

An automatic sprinkler system in which the pipes are constantly charged with water.

Autonomy

A person's right to make independent choices and to exercise control over their own lives, in practice often used as a synonym for independence.

Average Point Score (APS)

An average point score is the average of the points awarded to a group of pupils denoting their achievement within a subject or across a range of subjects following the end of Key Stage tests.

Award Scheme Development and Accreditation Network (ASDAN)

Web: www.asdan.org.uk

The Award Scheme Development and Accreditation Network is a charity that promotes the personal and social development of learners.

Axle interspace

For semi-trailers, the distance from the front of the landing legs to the centre of the axle or, if there is more than one axle, from the front of the landing legs to the midway point between the centre of the first axle and the centre of the last axle.

For trailers having two axles, the distance between the centre of the first axle and the centre of the rear axle.

For trailers having more than one front axle and more than one rear axle, the distance midway between the centre of the front axles and midway between the centre of the rear axles.