Last reviewed 1 June 2012
By Elizabeth Walker
Following recommendations by the Advisory Panel on Food and Nutrition in the Early Years and the Tickell review of the Early Years Foundation Stage, the School Food Trust has launched new national, voluntary guidelines for nutrition in early years settings.
For the first time, childcare providers have a nationally recognised source of information about the foods they should offer young children, portion sizes, sample menus and recipes, advice on tackling fussy eating and involving children in food and cooking activities.
The new guidance, The Voluntary Food and Drink Guidelines for Early Years Settings in England, forms part of the School Food Trust's Eat Better, Start Better project which helps young children to eat well by working with families and early years health and education practitioners.
As part of the guidelines, a voluntary code of practice has also been launched by the School Food Trust, which encourages settings to consider whether they provide children with a positive and welcoming eating environment and to consult with children and their families about the food they offer.
Importance of healthy eating in the early years
With more than a fifth of children either overweight or obese when they join reception class, it is vital that healthy eating habits are instilled in children from a young age. A nutritious, balanced diet and sufficient physical activity are essential to a child's long-term health and development, and good nutrition is also associated with improved learning and behaviour. As well as an increase in childhood obesity, there is growing evidence of other health issues arising in young children such as:
type II diabetes which usually appears in adulthood being found in overweight children
poor dental health
an increase in the number of cases of rickets
The nutritional requirements of the under-fives differ from the rest of the population and the new guidance focuses on the particular needs of children aged one to five. Young children are growing quickly and have high energy and nutrient requirements for their size. They also eat smaller amounts than older children and adults so portion sizes across meal and snack times are very important. In recent years, children's diets have changed with a trend towards eating foods high in saturated fat, sugar and salt but low in other vital nutrients. Many children are also failing to eat the recommended five portions of fruit or vegetables per day.
The School Food Trust has published a practical guide to introduce the new guidelines, which offers clear recommendations to all early years providers when planning and providing meals, drinks and snacks in their settings. The guide will help all early years settings to meet the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) welfare requirement for the provision of healthy, balanced and nutritious food and drink.
A healthy balanced diet for children aged one to five is based on the following four food groups.
Starchy foods such as bread, potatoes, rice, pasta and cereals (four portions per day).
Fruit and vegetables (five portions per day).
Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy forms of proteins (two portions per day).
Milk and dairy foods (three portions per day).
These four food groups provide a range of essential nutrients that children need to grow and develop. It is important to offer a wide variety of food and drinks from these food groups as this helps to ensure that a good balance of nutrients are consumed. As well as detailed information about each food group, the guidelines also cover the following areas.
Desserts, puddings and cakes.
How to read food labels.
Iron and zinc.
Ready-made meals and takeaways.
Portion sizes for different ages.
It is important that food and drink provided for children is balanced across the day and the guidelines divide energy and nutritional requirements across meals and snacks in the following proportions.
Breakfast — 20%
Mid-morning snack — 10%
Lunch — 30% (assuming lunch is the main meal)
Mid-afternoon snack — 10%
Tea — 20%
This leaves 10% for an additional drink or snack in the evening. Early years providers can use the "at a glance" information to check the food and drink guidelines are met for all meals and snacks.
Using the food and drinks guidelines to plan meals and snacks will help to ensure that all children eat a healthy, balanced diet whether they attend full daycare in one setting or attend several settings throughout the week. There are seven steps for planning healthy menus as follows.
Plan menus for all meals and snacks. This helps to check that the food and drink provision is well balanced and varied. It also helps planning for shopping and food preparation.
Plan menus lasting at least one week. It is important that children attending the setting on the same day each week don't always receive the same meals.
Plan each meal and snack menu according to the food and drink guidelines. This means that children who attend sessional care or move between providers still meet their nutritional requirements overall.
Plan menus to include a variety of foods, tastes, textures and colours.
Ensure that the cultural and dietary needs of all children are catered for.
Introduce new menu cycles at least twice a year to include seasonality and a variety of foods.
Share menus for meals and snacks with parents.
Seasonal sample menus, recipes, photos and portion size information which meet the guidelines can be downloaded from the School Food Trust. The following is the one week spring/summer menu which meets the energy and nutrient requirements for children aged one to five.
Breakfast — planned to provide 20% of a child’s daily nutritional requirements
Cornflakes with whole milk and raisins
Toasted crumpet and spread
Pear and hard boiled egg with wholemeal bread and spread
Rice crispies and whole milk with dried apricot and banana
Plain yoghurt with malt loaf and spread
Diluted apple juice
Wheat biscuits with whole milk and mixed berries
Toasted teacake and spread
Mid-morning snack — planned to provide 10% of a child’s daily nutritional requirements
Rice cakes and banana
Toasted muffin with spread and melon
Toasted bagel and spread with strawberries
Wholemeal toast and spread with apple and grapes
Sugar snap peas and houmous
Lunch — planned to provide 30% of a child’s daily nutritional requirements
Beef bolognaise or vegetarian bolognaise
Chickpea and vegetable curry with brown rice
Raspberry puree with fromage frais
Pork and apple casserole or mixed bean casserole with new potatoes and carrots
Pineapple upside down pudding with custard
Lamb burger or bean burger with homemade tomato sauce, potato wedges and garden peas
Salmon and broccoli pasta or broccoli and lentil pasta with sweetcorn
Eve’s pudding with custard
Diluted orange juice
Mid-afternoon snack — planned to provide 10% of a child’s daily nutritional requirements
Strawberries and plain yoghurt
Breadsticks with mozzarella balls and cherry tomatoes
White bread and spread with grapes
Pitta bread with tsatziki and carrot sticks
Sliced peach with fromage frais and rice cakes
Tea — planned to provide 20% of a child’s daily nutritional requirements
Beef and vegetable enchiladas or bean and vegetable enchiladas
Fresh fruit platter
Ratatouille with mozzarella cheese and a jacket potato
Ginger biscuits with sliced apple
Tuna and sweetcorn wholemeal pasta or chickpea and sweetcorn wholemeal pasta with red pepper sticks
Chicken and vegetable couscous salad or QuornTM and vegetable couscous salad
Rice pudding with sultanas
Savoury omelette with potato salad and cucumber
Crunchy summer crumble with yoghurt
A one week autumn/winter sample menu can also be found on the School Food Trust website.
Developing a food policy
An early years food policy helps staff, parents, carers and children to understand the setting's key aims on food and drink provision and learning about food. It helps to ensure that the setting has a consistent approach to healthy eating and it can include information on the following areas.
Food and drink provision for meals, snacks and drinks.
Communicating with children and families.
The eating environment and social aspects of meal times.
Rewards, celebrations, special events and birthdays.
Catering for cultural, religious and special dietary requirements including allergies.
Food and drink brought in from home.
Learning about food.
Cooking with children.
Food safety and hygiene.
Staff, parents, carers and children should all be involved in developing the food policy and it should be reviewed on a regular basis.
Practical support tools and the voluntary code of practice
The School Food Trust has developed practical support tools to help early years providers to understand and use the new food and drink guidelines and these can be downloaded for free from their website. The new resources include the following support tools.
Early years code of practice for food and drink. Displaying the code of practice is a clear way to show staff, families and visitors that the setting is following national best practice as detailed in the new guidelines.
Code of practice checklist.
Menu planning checklist.
Step-by-step guide to developing a food policy.
Example template food policy.
Research suggests that there was some confusion among early years providers about the particular nutritional needs of young children and there were some substantial gaps in information in previous guidance. These new guidelines will provide a clear source of information and support on providing healthy meals for young children. While the guidelines have been positively received, some child health experts have criticised the Government for failing to make them obligatory. There are concerns that not all nurseries and childminders will follow the guidelines unless they are made statutory, so close monitoring of food and drink provision in early years settings will still be necessary.
School Food Trust (www.schoolfoodtrust.org.uk) is the national charity and specialist advisor to Government on school meals and children's food.
Caroline Walker Trust (www.cwt.org.uk) provides nutritional and practical guidelines for vulnerable groups including the under-fives.
Pre-school Learning Alliance (www.pre-school.org.uk) is an educational charity specialising in early years.
National Day Nurseries Association (www.ndna.org.uk) is a national charity which aims to enhance the development and education of children in their early years.
Department of Health (www.dh.gov.uk).
The Food Standards Agency (www.food.gov.uk).
NHS Choices — Live Well (www.nhs.uk/livewell).
British Nutrition Foundation (www.nutrition.org.uk).